Over the past decade the tools for implementing monetary policy have become ever more diverse. These measures now include refinancing banks at favourable terms and large-scale asset purchases.
Slower-than-target inflation and a persistent decline in inflation expectations are key challenges for monetary policy. A negative equilibrium of prolonged low inflation and zero interest rates would fundamentally weaken monetary policy’s room for manoeuvre in balancing fluctuations in the economic cycle.
After a prolonged period of weakness, the Finnish economy has begun to recover. When the economy develops the capacity to renew itself in such a way that productivity improves and employment opportunities are generated, the growth outlook will improve. At the same time the risk of increasing marginalisation and lack of opportunities will be reduced.